- Alguns preceitos da invenção e elocução metafóricas de emblemas e empresas
This text is about two dead genres, emblem and device. It specifies the precepts of the invention of the body (the image) and soul (the discourse) of both emblem and device, found in the works of Andrea Alciato, Horapolo, Valeriano, Francesco Colonna, Paolo Giovio, Emanuele Tesauro and especially in the “Preface” of Cesare Ripa’s Iconología. The writers oppose their genres, considering that it is their usages which determine their differences. The emblem is always defined as the depiction of notions of collective validity, while the device depicts a purpose that is both particular and heroic. In the emblem, the motto that soul and body have, indicates that it is a moral document of deliberative sense or advice about future actions. The emblem also depicts heroic deeds, judging them judicially and praising them epideictically as exemplary actions that should be followed by everybody. As regards the device, its usage is individual and aristocratic. The device must be clever, equivocal and it has to be brief enough in order to darken the traits of what is being depicted. Therefore, without painted images the emblem is still an emblem, given that only the soul (discourse) is needed to publicly represent what is tried to be depicted (as, for instance, in the first edition of Alciato’s Emblemata), while the device can never dispense with the image, given that without the image the device is left with no arguments of similarity.